What are the characteristics of different cable materials?

With the rapid development of electricity in society, there are many kinds of cables made of different materials. So about cable material, what is the difference between them? What are the advantages and disadvantages of these cable materials? Let ZMS cable editor take you to understand the following.

Power Cable Material PVC

PVC insulation material is a mixture of stabilizers, plasticizers, flame retardants, lubricants, and other additives added to PVC power.

For different applications and characteristics of wire and cable needs, it is convenient to make corresponding adjustments.

After decades of production and use, PVC manufacturing and processing technology are now very mature.

PVC insulation has a wide range of applications in the wire and cable industry and has significant characteristics of its own.

Advantages of PVC Material

1 Mature Technology

Due to the mature technology of PVC, it is very easy to shape and process.

Compared with other types of cable insulation materials.

PVC is not only low cost, but also can be effectively controlled in terms of color difference, printing, softness, and hardness of the wire surface.

2 Good Flame Retardant Performance

PVC insulated wire is very easy to reach the flame retardant level specified by various standards.

3 Good Temperature Resistance

In terms of temperature resistance, the material formula has been optimized and improved.

4 In terms of rated voltage, it is generally used in the rated voltage level of 1000V AC and below and can be widely used in household appliances, instruments, lighting, network communications, and other industries.

5 Non-toxic and odorless PVC insulated wire can also be widely used in air conditioners, refrigerators, and another electrical wiring.

Disadvantages of PVC Material

PVC also has some disadvantages that limit its use.

1 Large Amount of Chlorine

Due to a large amount of chlorine, it emits a lot of smoke when it burns, which can suffocate people.

Polyvinyl chloride Cable

This can affect visibility and produce some carcinogenic substances and HCl gas, causing serious harm to the environment.

With the development of low smoke halogen-free insulation materials manufacturing technology, gradually replacing PVC insulation has become the inevitable trend of cable development.

At present, some influential and socially responsible enterprises, in the company’s technical standards, put forward a timetable for the replacement of PVC materials.

2 Common Poor Performance

Ordinary PVC insulation acid and alkali resistance, heat and oil resistance, and organic solvent resistance are poor.

According to the chemical principle of similar solubility, PVC wire is highly susceptible to breakage and cracking in the specific environment described.

However, with its excellent processing properties and low cost. PVC wire is still widely used in the fields of household appliances, lighting, mechanical equipment, instruments, network communication, building wiring, etc.

Power Cable Material XLPE

XLPE material is cross-linked polyethylene.

This is a cross-linked polyethylene that is transformed from a linear molecular structure to a three-dimensional structure under certain conditions by the action of high-energy radiation or cross-linking agents.

It also changes from a thermoplastic to an insoluble thermosetting plastic.

At present, there are three main cross-linking methods used in wire and cable insulation.

1 Peroxide Cross-Linking

This is done by first using polyethylene resin with appropriate cross-linking agents and anti-oxidants.

Other ingredients are added as needed to make cross-linkable polyethylene blend particles.

The cross-linking is produced during extrusion through a hot steam cross-linked pipe.

2 Silane Crosslinking

This is also a chemical cross-linking method.

The main mechanism is to cross-link silicone and polyethylene under specific conditions, and the degree of cross-linking can generally reach about 60%.

3 Irradiation Crosslinking

This is the use of high-energy rays such as r-rays, alpha rays, electron rays, and other energy.

The carbon atoms in the polyethylene macromolecule are excited to live link, and the common high-energy rays used in wire and cable are electron rays generated by electron gas pedals.

Because the crosslinking is carried out by physical energy, it is physical cross-linking.

Advantages of XLPE Insulation

1 Improved Heat Resistance

Increased heat resistance and deformation resistance, improved mechanical properties at high temperatures.

Improved resistance to environmental stress cracking and heat aging.

Cross-linked polyethylene Cable

2 Increased Solvent Resistance

Reduced cold flow and maintained the original electrical properties. Long-term working temperatures can reach 125℃ and 150℃.

Cross-linked polyethylene insulated wires and cables also have improved short-circuit withstand capability.

Its short-time withstand temperature can reach 250 ℃.

With the same thickness of wire and cable, cross-linked polyethylene load capacity is much larger.

3 Excellent Radiation Resistance

This property makes XLPE cables more widely used.

For example, the internal connection line of electrical appliances, lighting leads, locomotive wires, subway wires, and cables, power transmission wires, and cables, etc.

Disadvantages of XLPE Insulation

1 Poor Thermal Adhesion Resistance

When used at a temperature exceeding the rated temperature of the cable, it is easy to cause mutual adhesion between the wires.

Severe insulation may lead to short circuits.

2 Poor Thermal Cut-Through Resistance.

At a temperature of more than 200 ℃, the wire insulation becomes abnormally soft.

The external extrusion collision easily leads to wire cuts through the short circuit.

3 Color Difference is Difficult To Control

During processing, it is easy to have problems such as scratching and whitening, printing off, etc.

Silicone Rubber Cable Insulation

The silicone rubber polymer molecule is a chain-like structure with SI-O bonds.

The SI-O bond is 443.5KJ/MOL, which is much higher than the C-C bond.

Most silicone rubber wire and cables are cold extruded and vulcanized at high temperatures.

Among the many synthetic rubber wires and cables, its unique molecular structure makes silicone rubber have better performance than other common rubber

Advantages of Silicone Rubber Insulation

1 Good Elasticity

The silicone rubber material is very soft, has good elasticity, and is odorless and non-toxic.

It is also not afraid of high temperatures, and can also withstand severe cold.

The use temperature range is -90~300℃.

Silicone rubber has much better heat resistance than ordinary rubber. It can be used continuously at 200℃ and for a while at 350℃.

2 Good Weather Resistance

Its physical properties change only slightly under UV and other climatic conditions for a long time.

3 High and Stable Resistivity

In addition, silicone rubber also has good resistance to high-voltage corona discharge and arc discharge.

Silica Rubber Cable

Silicone rubber insulated wire and cable has a series of these advantages.

It has a wide range of applications in the field of high-voltage device wire for TV sets, high-temperature resistant wire for microwave ovens, and wire for induction cookers, especially for small home appliances.

However, some of its disadvantages also limit its wider use.

Disadvantages of Silicone Rubber Insulation

1 Poor Tear Resistance

Processing or use process by external extrusion, scratching, and abrasion prone to breakage, resulting in short circuits.

The current protective measure is to add a glass fiber or high-temperature polyester fiber woven layer outside the silicone insulation.

However, the processing process still needs to avoid the damage caused by external extrusion as far as possible.

2 Vulcanizing Agent Hazards

Vulcanization molding added vulcanizing agent is currently mainly used double two four. The vulcanizing agent contains the element chlorine,

Completely halogen-free vulcanizing agents in the production environment temperature requirements are strict, and the cost is high.

So the wire harness processing should pay attention to the pressure wheel pressure should not be too large.

It is better to use rubber material to prevent cracking during the production process, resulting in poor pressure resistance.

At the same time, it should be noted that the glass fiber yarn in the production process should take the necessary protective measures.

To prevent inhalation of lungs, affecting the health of employees.

These are the three most common cable insulation materials in the cable industry. Each has its advantages and disadvantages, the specific suitability of which needs to be in the selection of cable is carefully selected can be.

ZMS cable company has been concerned about the development of the cable, always adhering to providing high-quality cable, good value for money, considerate service, the product after a strict manual qualification audit, trustworthy.

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